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Angle Orthod. 2009 Jul;79(4):796-9. doi: 10.2319/081808-435.1.

Malposition of unerupted mandibular second premolar in children with palatally displaced canines.

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Department of Orthodontics, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.



To test the hypotheses that (1) the distal angulation of unerupted mandibular premolar (MnP2) is significantly greater in children with palatally displaced canines (PDC) than in those in a control sample; and (2) delayed tooth formation is significantly more frequent in children with both malposed MnP2 and PDC than in children with PDC only.


We examined retrospectively panoramic radiographs from 43 patients with PDC who had no previous orthodontics. A control sample consisted of age- and sex-matched patients. The distal angle formed between the long axis of MnP2 and the tangent to the inferior border was measured. Dental age was evaluated using the Koch classification.


A significant difference was observed between the mean inclination of the right side MnP2 in the PDC group (75.4 degrees) and that of the control group (85.8 degrees). This difference was highly statistically significant (P < .0001). The same evaluation was carried out for the left side, with similar results. The average dental age was found to be delayed in patients who showed both abnormalities (malposed MnP2 and PDC) compared with patients who showed the PDC anomaly only.


Both hypotheses are retained. Statistically, PDC and MnP2 malposition are significantly associated suggesting a common genetic etiology, despite taking place on opposite jaws. While the presence of PDC or MnP2 anomaly has been associated with a delay in tooth formation, we find the presence of both anomalies to show a more profound delay. Our findings suggest a delay in tooth formation as a possible common genetic mechanism for these 2 malposition anomalies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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