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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009 Oct;64(10):1082-9. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glp078. Epub 2009 Jun 17.

Social inequality in walking speed in early old age in the Whitehall II study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK. e.brunner@ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We investigated social inequalities in walking speed in early old age.

METHODS:

Walking speed was measured by timed 8-ft (2.44 m) test in 6,345 individuals, with mean age of 61.1 (SD 6.0) years. Current or last known civil service employment grade defined socioeconomic position.

RESULTS:

Mean walking speed was 1.36 (SD 0.29) m/s in men and 1.21 (SD 0.30) in women. Average age- and ethnicity-adjusted walking speed was approximately 13% higher in the highest employment grade compared with the lowest. Based on the relative index of inequality (RII), the difference in walking speed across the social hierarchy was 0.15 m/s (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.18) in men and 0.17 m/s (0.12-0.22) in women, corresponding to an age-related difference of 18.7 (13.6-23.8) years in men and 14.9 (9.9-19.9) years in women. The RII for slow walking speed (logistic model for lowest sex-specific quartile vs others) adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity was 3.40 (2.64-4.36). Explanatory factors for the social gradient in walking speed included Short-Form 36 physical functioning, labor market status, financial insecurity, height, and body mass index. Demographic, psychosocial, behavioral, biologic, and health factors in combination accounted for 40% of social inequality in walking speed.

CONCLUSION:

Social inequality in walking speed is substantial in early old age and reflects many factors beyond the direct effects of physical health.

PMID:
19535784
PMCID:
PMC4851984
DOI:
10.1093/gerona/glp078
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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