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Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Sep;76(3):516-25. doi: 10.1124/mol.109.057489. Epub 2009 Jun 17.

15-oxo-Eicosatetraenoic acid, a metabolite of macrophage 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase that inhibits endothelial cell proliferation.

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Center for Cancer Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.


The formation of 15-oxo-5,8,11,13-(Z,Z,Z,E)-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE) as a product from rabbit lung 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH)-mediated oxidation of 15(S)-hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-(Z,Z,Z,E)-eicosatetraenoic acid was first reported more than 30 years ago. However, the pharmacological significance of 15-oxo-ETE formation has never been established. We have now evaluated 15-lipoxygenase (LO)-1-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism to 15-oxo-ETE in human monocytes and mouse RAW macrophages that stably express human 15-LO-1 (R15L cells). A targeted lipidomics approach was used to identify and quantify the oxidized lipids that were formed. 15-oxo-ETE was found to be a major AA-derived LO metabolite when AA was given exogenously or released from endogenous esterified lipid stores by calcium ionophore (CI) calcimycin (A-23187). This established the R15L cells as a useful in vitro model system. Pretreatment of the R15L cells with cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxycyanocinnamate significantly inhibited AA- or CI-mediated production of 15(S)-hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-(Z,Z,Z,E)-eicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE] and 15-oxo-ETE, confirming the role of 15-LO-1 in mediating AA metabolite formation. Furthermore, 15(S)-HETE was metabolized primarily to 15-oxo-ETE. Pretreatment of the R15L cells with the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) inhibitor 5-[[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-2-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (CAY10397) reduced AA- and 15(S)-HETE-mediated formation of 15-oxo-ETE in a dose-dependent manner. This confirmed that macrophage-derived 15-PGDH was responsible for catalyzing the conversion of 15(S)-HETE to 15-oxo-ETE. Finally, 15-oxo-ETE was shown to inhibit the proliferation of human vascular vein endothelial cells by suppressing DNA synthesis, implicating a potential antiangiogenic role. This is the first report describing the biosynthesis of 15-oxo-ETE by macrophage/monocytes and its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation.

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