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Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct;20(8):1451-8. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9371-6. Epub 2009 Jun 17.

Dietary vitamin C, E, and carotenoid intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

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Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada.



The study examines the association between dietary intake of vitamin C, E, and carotenoids and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).


Between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces, mailed questionnaires were completed by 1,138 incident, histologically confirmed cases of RCC and 5,039 population controls, including information on socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 years before data collection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression.


Dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin was inversely associated with the risk of RCC. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.59-0.92) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62-0.95), respectively. The significant inverse association with beta-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin was more pronounced in women, and in overweight or obese subjects. The relation of lutein/zeaxanthin to RCC was stronger in ever smokers. No clear association was observed with vitamin C and E, beta-cryptozanthin, and lycopene.


The findings provide evidence that a diet rich in beta-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin may play a role in RCC prevention.

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