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Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Sep;14(9):977-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02302.x. Epub 2009 Jun 15.

Epidemiological studies of the non-specific effects of vaccines: II--methodological issues in the design and analysis of cohort studies.

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Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.


We review sources of bias which can affect non-randomized cohort studies of non-specific effects of vaccines on child mortality. Using examples from the literature on non-specific effects, we describe different sources of selection and information bias, and, where possible, outline analysis strategies to mitigate or eliminate such biases.

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