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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 Sep;35(9):1765-71.

Effects of ranitidine and sucralfate on ketoconazole bioavailability.

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Center for Clinical Pharmacy Research, School of Pharmacy, State University of New York, Buffalo, Amherst 14260.


Ketoconazole is an oral imidazole antifungal agent useful in the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections. Gastrointestinal absorption of this agent is variable and dependent on the presence of gastric acid. This study compared the effects of concomitant sucralfate administration with ranitidine administration on the pharmacokinetic disposition of a 400-mg ketoconazole dose. Six healthy male volunteers were randomized to receive 400 mg of ketoconazole alone, 1.0 g of sucralfate concomitantly with a 400-mg ketoconazole dose, or ranitidine, administered 2 h prior to a 400-mg ketoconazole dose to titrate to a gastric pH of 6. All subjects received all three regimens in crossover fashion. Gastric pH was measured continuously for 4 h after ketoconazole administration in all subjects by using a Heidelberg radiotelemetry pH capsule. Relative ketoconazole bioavailability was compared between treatments. With sucralfate, five of six subjects demonstrated a decrease in the peak drug concentration in serum as well as an increase in the time to peak concentration, indicating a delay in ketoconazole absorption. The mean area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h for ketoconazole following gastric alkalinization was significantly different from that of either ketoconazole alone or ketoconazole with sucralfate (P less than 0.01). Continuous gastric pH monitoring allowed correlation between the decrease in ketoconazole bioavailability observed with ranitidine and the increase in gastric pH. The apparent decrease in ketoconazole bioavailability observed with sucralfate appears to be caused by an alternative mechanism since a change in gastric pH was not observed. On the basis of these findings, separating the administration of ketoconazole and sucralfate should be considered to decrease the potential for interaction of sucralfate on ketoconazole bioavailability.

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