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Phys Rev Lett. 2009 May 8;102(18):187001. Epub 2009 May 4.

Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors and superfluids in two and three dimensions.

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1
Department of Physics, McCullough Building, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045, USA.

Abstract

We construct time-reversal invariant topological superconductors and superfluids in two and three dimensions. These states have a full pairing gap in the bulk, gapless counterpropagating Majorana states at the boundary, and a pair of Majorana zero modes associated with each vortex. The superfluid 3He B phase provides a physical realization of the topological superfluidity, with experimentally measurable surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. We show that the time-reversal symmetry naturally emerges as a supersymmetry, which changes the parity of the fermion number associated with each time-reversal invariant vortex and connects each vortex with its superpartner.

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