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Phys Rev Lett. 2009 Apr 24;102(16):161301. Epub 2009 Apr 20.

Spectral dimension of the universe in quantum gravity at a lifshitz point.

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1
Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300, USA.

Abstract

We extend the definition of "spectral dimension" d_{s} (usually defined for fractal and lattice geometries) to theories in spacetimes with anisotropic scaling. We show that in gravity with dynamical critical exponent z in D+1 dimensions, the spectral dimension of spacetime is d_{s}=1+D/z. In the case of gravity in 3+1 dimensions with z=3 in the UV which flows to z=1 in the IR, the spectral dimension changes from d_{s}=4 at large scales to d_{s}=2 at short distances. Remarkably, this is the behavior found numerically by Ambjørn et al. in their causal dynamical triangulations approach to quantum gravity.

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