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J Gen Virol. 2009 Sep;90(Pt 9):2073-80. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.012682-0. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

Interaction of Sindbis virus non-structural protein 3 with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in neuronal cells.

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W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Cellular and Molecular Medicine Graduate Program, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.


The alphavirus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) has a conserved N-terminal macro domain and a variable highly phosphorylated C-terminal domain. nsP3 forms complexes with cellular proteins, but its role in virus replication is poorly understood and protein interaction domains have not been defined. As the N-terminal macro domain can bind poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), and PAR polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is activated and autoribosylated during Sindbis virus (SINV) infection, it was hypothesized that PARP-1 and nsP3 may interact. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that PARP-1 interacted with nsP3 during SINV infection of NSC34 neuronal cells and was most abundantly present in replication complexes that contained plus- and minus-strand SINV RNAs 10-14 h after infection, prior to PARP-1 activation or automodification with PAR. Treatment with an inhibitor of PARP enzymic activity did not affect the interaction between nsP3 and PARP-1 or SINV replication. Co-expression of individual domains of nsP3 with PARP-1 showed that nsP3 interacted with PARP-1 through the C-terminal domain, not the N-terminal macro domain, and that phosphorylation was not required. It was concluded that PARP-1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of nsP3, is present in replication complexes during virus amplification and may play a role in regulating virus RNA synthesis in neuronal cells.

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