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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2009 Jun;44(2-3):117-41. doi: 10.1080/10409230902858785.

How eukaryotic genes are transcribed.

Author information

1
Center for Eukaryotic Gene Regulation, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Abstract

Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined 30 years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: (1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes; (2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific transcription factors; (3) chromatin remodeling coupled to promoter assembly of the general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II; and (4) phosphorylation states of RNA polymerase II coupled to chromatin modification states during transcription. The wealth of new insights arising from the tools of biochemistry, genomics, cell biology, and genetics is providing a remarkable view into the mechanics of gene regulation.

PMID:
19514890
PMCID:
PMC2718758
DOI:
10.1080/10409230902858785
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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