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Prostate. 2009 Oct 1;69(14):1481-92. doi: 10.1002/pros.20998.

Nemo-like kinase induces apoptosis and inhibits androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses, and many critical signaling pathways are subject to cross-regulation by MAPK signaling. Previous studies have yielded evidence of cross-talk between the MAPK pathways and androgen receptor (AR) signaling, which plays a critical role in growth control of both normal prostate and prostate cancer (PCa). Objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of MAPK-like protein nemo-like kinase (NLK) in PCa and its effects on AR-mediated transcription.

METHODS:

Real-time PCR and IHC were used to evaluate levels of NLK in prostatic samples. Effects of over-expression of NLK on apoptosis and proliferation were determined using Western blot and flow cytometry. Effects on AR signaling were evaluated using over-expression and knockdown of NLK in PCa cells in combination with PCR, Western blotting and reporter assays.

RESULTS:

Our results show that the expression of NLK is decreased in PCa metastases in comparison to normal prostate epithelium and primary PCa. Our results also show that over-expression of NLK resulted in induction of apoptosis, which was more pronounced in AR-expressing LNCaP versus AR-negative PC-3 cells. Higher levels of NLK decreased levels of AR mRNA and protein as well as inhibited AR-mediated transcription.

CONCLUSIONS:

NLK expression is altered during PCa progression and it is involved in regulation of AR signaling in these cells. A deeper understanding of the roles of NLK in regulation of AR-mediated transcription and control of PCa progression may point the way to new modes of therapeutic intervention in this disease.

PMID:
19514049
PMCID:
PMC2908180
DOI:
10.1002/pros.20998
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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