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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Aug;66(15):2539-57. doi: 10.1007/s00018-009-0054-y. Epub 2009 Jun 9.

Evolution and diversity of glutaredoxins in photosynthetic organisms.

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Interactions Arbres Microorganismes, IFR 110 Génomique Ecophysiologie et Ecologie Fonctionnelles, Unité Mixte de Recherches 1136 INRA-Nancy Université, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, France.


The genome sequencing of prokaryotic and eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms enables a comparative genomic study of the glutaredoxin (Grx) family. The analysis of 58 genomes, using a specific motif composed of the active site sequence and of amino acids involved in glutathione binding, led to an updated classification of Grxs into six classes. Only two classes (I and II) are common to all photosynthetic organisms. Eukaryotes and cyanobacteria have two specific Grx classes (classes III and IV and classes V and VI, respectively). The classes IV, V and VI have not yet been identified and contain multimodular Grx fusions. In addition, putative Grx partners were identified from the presence of fusion proteins, the conservation of gene order in bacterial operons, and the gene co-occurrence. The genes encoding class II Grxs and BolA/YrbA proteins are frequently adjacent, in the same transcriptional orientation in prokaryote genomes and present in the same organisms.

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