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Opt Express. 2009 Jun 8;17(12):9526-36.

Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging.

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  • 1Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.


We developed a multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope using a microlens array scanner for real-time molecular imaging. Parallel exposure of a specimen with light from two highly controlled picosecond mode-locked lasers (jitter of 30 fs through an electronic low-pass filter with 150 Hz bandwidth, point-by-point wavelength scan within 300 ms) and parallel detection with an image sensor enabled real-time imaging. We demonstrated real-time CARS imaging of polystyrene beads (frame rate of 30 fps), a giant multi-lamellar vesicle of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (frame rate of 10 fps), and living HeLa cells (frame rate of 10 fps).

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