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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 23;106(25):10081-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0812533106. Epub 2009 Jun 8.

The mechanics of slithering locomotion.

Author information

1
Applied Mathematics Laboratory, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. hu@me.gatech.edu

Abstract

In this experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the slithering of snakes on flat surfaces. Previous studies of slithering have rested on the assumption that snakes slither by pushing laterally against rocks and branches. In this study, we develop a theoretical model for slithering locomotion by observing snake motion kinematics and experimentally measuring the friction coefficients of snakeskin. Our predictions of body speed show good agreement with observations, demonstrating that snake propulsion on flat ground, and possibly in general, relies critically on the frictional anisotropy of their scales. We have also highlighted the importance of weight distribution in lateral undulation, previously difficult to visualize and hence assumed uniform. The ability to redistribute weight, clearly of importance when appendages are airborne in limbed locomotion, has a much broader generality, as shown by its role in improving limbless locomotion.

PMID:
19506255
PMCID:
PMC2700932
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.0812533106
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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