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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Aug;75(15):5058-63. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00122-09. Epub 2009 Jun 5.

Inactivation of Escherichia coli endotoxin by soft hydrothermal processing.

Author information

1
Institute for Animal Experimentation, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. miyamoto@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

Abstract

Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are a fever-producing by-product of gram-negative bacteria commonly known as pyrogens. It is essential to remove endotoxins from parenteral preparations since they have multiple injurious biological activities. Because of their strong heat resistance (e.g., requiring dry-heat sterilization at 250 degrees C for 30 min) and the formation of various supramolecular aggregates, depyrogenation is more difficult than sterilization. We report here that soft hydrothermal processing, which has many advantages in safety and cost efficiency, is sufficient to assure complete depyrogenation by the inactivation of endotoxins. The endotoxin concentration in a sample was measured by using a chromogenic limulus method with an endotoxin-specific limulus reagent. The endotoxin concentration was calculated from a standard curve obtained using a serial dilution of a standard solution. We show that endotoxins were completely inactivated by soft hydrothermal processing at 130 degrees C for 60 min or at 140 degrees C for 30 min in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system. Moreover, it is easy to remove endotoxins from water by soft hydrothermal processing similarly at 130 degrees C for 60 min or at 140 degrees C for 30 min, without any requirement for ultrafiltration, nonselective adsorption with a hydrophobic adsorbent, or an anion exchanger. These findings indicate that soft hydrothermal processing, applied in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system, can inactivate endotoxins and may be useful for the depyrogenation of parenterals, including end products and medical devices that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of dry heat treatments.

PMID:
19502435
PMCID:
PMC2725499
DOI:
10.1128/AEM.00122-09
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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