Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010 Apr;42(4):394-403. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2008-0301OC. Epub 2009 Jun 5.

Innate immune processes are sufficient for driving cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in mice.

Author information

Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West Hamilton, ON L8N3Z5, Canada.


The objective of this study was to characterize the impact of cigarette smoke exposure on lung immune and inflammatory processes. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days (acute) or at least 5 weeks (prolonged). Both mouse strains manifested an inflammatory response after acute smoke exposure, characterized by an influx of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Multiplex analysis revealed a greater than twofold increase of the cytokines IL-1alpha, -5, -6, and -18, as well as the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -3, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, -beta, and -gamma, -2, -3beta, macrophage defined chemokine, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10. In BALB/c mice, neutrophilia persisted after prolonged exposure, whereas C57BL/6 showed evidence of attenuated neutrophilia both in the bronchoalveolar lavage and the lungs. In both mouse strains, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with an expansion of mature (CD11c(hi)/major histocompatibility complex class II(hi)) myeloid dendritic cells; we observed no changes in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Lymphocytes in the lungs displayed an activated phenotype that persisted for CD4 T cells only after prolonged exposure. In BALB/c mice, T cells acquired T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 effector function after 5 weeks of smoke exposure, whereas, in C57BL/6 mice, neither Th1 nor Th2 cells were detected. In both mouse strains, cigarette smoke exposure led to an accumulation of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells in the lungs. Studies in RAG1 knockout mice suggest that these regulatory cells may participate in controlling smoke-induced inflammation. Acute and prolonged cigarette smoke exposure was associated with inflammation, activation of the adaptive immune system, and expansion of T regulatory cells in the lungs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center