Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cytokine. 2009 Jul;47(1):69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.05.001. Epub 2009 Jun 5.

TNFR and LTbetaR agonists induce follicle-associated epithelium and M cell specific genes in rat and human intestinal epithelial cells.

Author information

  • 1Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.


M cells assist mucosal immune surveillance by transcytosis of particles to underlying lymphoid tissue, but the mechanisms of M cell differentiation are poorly understood. To develop a better defined cell culture model of M cell differentiation, we treated human (Caco-2BBe) and rat (IEC-6) intestinal epithelial cell lines with lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTbetaR) and TNF receptor (TNFR) agonists. Treated cells were studied for regulation of genes associated with M cell and follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). We found that LTbetaR and TNFR agonists induce transcription of FAE-specific genes (Ccl20 and Lamb3) in Caco2-BBe cells and IEC-6 cells as well as rodent M cell specific genes such as Sgne-1/Scg5, Cldn4, and Gp2. The cytokines have distinct but complementary effects; TNFR agonists mainly induced FAE-specific genes, while the LTbetaR agonist induced M cell specific genes. The combination of cytokines showed additive induction of the FAE-associated Ccl20, Lamb3 and a surprising induction of CD137/Tnfrsf9. On the other hand TNF agonists appeared to suppress expression of some LTbetaR-induced genes. Functionally, cytokine treatment led to the reorganization of microvilli and Claudin-4 redistribution. These studies suggest complex interactions between these cytokines in the context of either inflammation or tissue differentiation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances, Grant Support

Publication Types

MeSH Terms


Grant Support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center