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Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2009 Jul;18(3):469-85. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2009.03.005.

Risk factors for esophageal cancer development.

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  • 1Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Center for Swallowing and Esophageal Disorders, Desk A-31, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.


The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing at a rate greater than that of any other cancer in the Western world today. Barrett's esophagus is a clearly recognized risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but the overwhelming majority of patients with Barrett's esophagus will never develop esophageal cancer. To date, dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Other epidemiologic risk factors include aging, gender, race, obesity, reflux symptoms, smoking, and diet. Factors that may protect against the development of adenocarcinoma include infection with Helicobacter pylori, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and consumption of aspirin and NSAIDs.

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