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Plant J. 2009 Oct;60(1):10-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03933.x. Epub 2009 May 26.

Heat stress activates phospholipase D and triggers PIP accumulation at the plasma membrane and nucleus.

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1
Section of Plant Physiology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Science, University of Amsterdam, 1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands. mmishkin@nsf.gov

Abstract

Heat stress induces an array of physiological adjustments that facilitate continued homeostasis and survival during periods of elevated temperatures. Here, we report that within minutes of a sudden temperature increase, plants deploy specific phospholipids to specific intracellular locations: phospholipase D (PLD) and a phosphatidylinositolphosphate kinase (PIPK) are activated, and phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) rapidly accumulate, with the heat-induced PIP(2) localized to the plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, nucleolus and punctate cytoplasmic structures. Increases in the steady-state levels of PA and PIP(2) occur within several minutes of temperature increases from ambient levels of 20-25 degrees C to 35 degrees C and above. Similar patterns were observed in heat-stressed Arabidopsis seedlings and rice leaves. The PA that accumulates in response to temperature increases results in large part from the activation of PLD rather than the sequential action of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase, the alternative pathway used to produce this lipid. Pulse-labelling analysis revealed that the PIP(2) response is due to the activation of a PIPK rather than inhibition of a lipase or a PIP(2) phosphatase. Inhibitor experiments suggest that the PIP(2) response requires signalling through a G-protein, as aluminium fluoride blocks heat-induced PIP(2) increases. These results are discussed in the context of the diverse cellular roles played by PIP(2) and PA, including regulation of ion channels and the cytoskeleton.

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