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Opt Express. 2005 Jul 25;13(15):5592-9.

Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction.


We present the experimental demonstration of imaging by all-angle negative refraction in a 3D photonic crystal flat lens at microwave frequencies. The flat lens is made of a body-centered cubic photonic crystal (PhC) whose dispersion at the third band results in group velocity opposite to phase velocity for electromagnetic waves. We fabricated the photonic crystal following a layer-by-layer process. A microwave imaging system was established based on a vector network analyzer, where two dipoles work as the source and the detector separately. By scanning the volume around the lens with the detector dipole, we captured the image of the dipole source in both amplitude and phase. The image of two incoherent sources separated by 0.44lambda showed two resolvable spots, which served to verify sub-wavelength resolution.

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