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J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17(1):115-23. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2009-1017.

Decreased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with early Alzheimer's disease.

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Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by massive neuronal cell loss in the brain. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that promotes neuroprotective effects and supports neurogenesis in the brain. In the present study, we found significantly lower G-CSF plasma levels in 50 early AD patients in comparison with 50 age-matched healthy controls. In AD patients, G-CSF levels showed a significant inverse correlation with amyloid-beta (Abeta1-42) levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but not with levels of tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid or Mini-Mental Status Examination scores. In addition, G-CSF plasma levels were significantly inversely correlated with age in AD patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, decreased G-CSF plasma levels in early AD patients may contribute to a deficient hematopoietic brain support with putative pathogenic relevance. Further studies are needed to examine whether a modulation of hematopoietic growth factors such as G-CSF could be a promising new therapeutic strategy for AD.

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