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Ann Bot. 2009 Aug;104(2):315-23. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcp126. Epub 2009 May 30.

Enhancement of artemisinin concentration and yield in response to optimization of nitrogen and potassium supply to Artemisia annua.

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East Malling Research, New Road, East Malling, Kent, UK.



The resurgence of malaria, particularly in the developing world, is considerable and exacerbated by the development of single-gene multi-drug resistances to chemicals such as chloroquinone. Drug therapies, as recommended by the World Health Organization, now include the use of antimalarial compounds derived from Artemisia annua--in particular, the use of artemisinin-based ingredients. Despite our limited knowledge of its mode of action or biosynthesis there is a need to secure a supply and enhance yields of artemisinin. The present study aims to determine how plant biomass can be enhanced while maximizing artemisinin concentration by understanding the plant's nutritional requirements for nitrogen and potassium.


Experiments were carried out, the first with differing concentrations of nitrogen, at 6, 31, 56, 106, 206 or 306 mg L(-1) being applied, while the other differing in potassium concentration (51, 153 or 301 mg L(-1)). Nutrients were supplied in irrigation water to plants in pots and after a growth period biomass production and leaf artemisinin concentration were measured. These data were used to determine optimal nutrient requirements for artemisinin yield.


Nitrogen nutrition enhanced plant nitrogen concentration and biomass production successively up to 106 mg N L(-1) for biomass and 206 mg N L(-1) for leaf nitrogen; further increases in nitrogen had no influence. Artemisinin concentration in dried leaf material, measured by HPLC mass spectroscopy, was maximal at a nitrogen application of 106 mg L(-1), but declined at higher concentrations. Increasing potassium application from 51 to 153 mg L(-1) increased total plant biomass, but not at higher applications. Potassium application enhanced leaf potassium concentration, but there was no effect on leaf artemisinin concentration or leaf artemisinin yield.


Artemisinin concentration declined beyond an optimal point with increasing plant nitrogen concentration. Maximization of artemisinin yield (amount per plant) requires optimization of plant biomass via control of nitrogen nutrition.

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