Send to

Choose Destination
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2009 Jun;62(6):633-41.

Alcohol consumption and the incidence of hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN study.

[Article in English, Spanish]

Author information

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, España.



To assess prospectively the association between alcohol consumption, including alcoholic beverage preference and days of consumption per week, and the risk of hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort.


We prospectively followed 9,963 Spanish men and women initially without hypertension. Self-reported and validated data on diet and hypertension diagnoses were collected.


During follow-up (median [interquartile range], 4.2 [2.5-6.1] years), 554 incident cases of hypertension were identified over a total of 43,562 person-years. The hazard ratio for hypertension among those who consumed alcohol on >or=5 days per week was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.7) compared to abstainers. Among those who drank alcohol >or=5 days per week, the hazard ratio for hypertension associated with consuming >or=1 drink per day was 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2) compared with abstainers. The consumption of beer or spirits, but not wine, was associated with an increased risk of hypertension. The hazard ratio associated with consuming >0.5 drinks of beer or spirits per day was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.99) compared with abstainers. In contrast, there was a nonsignificant inverse association between red wine intake and the risk of hypertension.


In this Mediterranean population, the consumption of beer or spirits, but not wine, was associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension. However, the weekly pattern of alcohol consumption did not have a significant impact on the risk of hypertension.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ediciones Doyma, S.L.
Loading ...
Support Center