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Eur J Orthod. 2009 Oct;31(5):477-84. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjp031. Epub 2009 May 28.

Malocclusion and occlusal traits in an urban Iranian population. An epidemiological study of 11- to 14-year-old children.

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Department of Orthodontics, Birmingham Dental Hospital, Birmingham, UK.


The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions, occlusal traits, and their gender distribution in urban Iranian school children. Five hundred and two subjects (253 females and 249 males, aged 11-14 years) were examined. Molar relationship, overjet (OJ), overbite, midline deviation, crossbite, and crowding/spacing were recorded. Gender dimorphism was evaluated by the chi-square test. According to the classification of Angle, the prevalence of Class I, Class II division 1, Class II division 2, and Class III malocclusions was 41.8, 24.1, 3.4, and 7.8 per cent, respectively. Symmetric molar relationship was present in 69.5 per cent. An OJ of at least 3.5 mm or more was present in 28.1 per cent; an OJ of more than 6 mm in 3.6 per cent, and 4.2 per cent had a reverse OJ. A normal overbite was observed in 60.4 per cent, while 34.5 per cent had an increased and 2.2 per cent a very deep overbite. An anterior open bite (AOB) was present in 1.6 per cent and a scissor bite or anterior crossbite in 2 and 8.4 per cent, respectively. A posterior crossbite was observed in 12.4 per cent (8.4 per cent unilateral, 2 per cent bilateral, and 2 per cent in association with an anterior crossbite). Midline deviation was present in 23.7 per cent. Severe crowding (>or=5.1 mm) was observed in 16.7 and 10.8 per cent and spacing in 18.9 and 20.7 per cent of the maxillary and mandibular arches, respectively. Significant gender differences were found for overbite (P < 0.001), midline deviation (P < 0.05), and maxillary and mandibular arch crowding/spacing (P < 0.05). The prevalence of Class II malocclusions was comparable with Caucasians; however, the most severe forms of Class II malocclusions were rare in this Iranian population. The relative prevalence of Class III malocclusions in the present study was greater than in Caucasians. Crowding was the most common dental anomaly in both arches.

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