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J Am Coll Surg. 2009 Jun;208(6):1035-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2009.02.049. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

A new era in esophageal diagnostics: the image-based paradigm of high-resolution manometry.

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Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.



The development of high-resolution (HRM) catheters and software displays of manometric recordings in color-coded pressure plots has changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. HRM may offer advantages over conventional methods, including improved identification of motility disorders, hiatal hernia, and outflow obstruction, and ease interpretation.


HRM studies were obtained in 50 healthy volunteers and 106 patients. HRM was performed using a 36-channel catheter, with sensors spaced at 1-cm intervals. Manometric findings were classified into abnormalities of the gastroesophageal barrier and those of the esophageal body and validated by comparison with endoscopic and radiographic diagnostic methods.


The mean time for HRM was significantly lower than that for a conventional method (8.1versus 24.4 minutes; p < 0.0001). A structurally defective lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was present in 53 (57.3%) patients, a hypertensive LES in 6 (7.8%), and impaired LES relaxation in 17 patients (16.7%). Validating the LES findings, 86.3% (44 of 51) of patients with a defective sphincter by HRM had radiographic or endoscopic evidence of a hiatal hernia, and 80% (41 of 51) had a positive pH study, endoscopic erosive esophagitis, or Barrett's esophagus. Evidence of a hiatal hernia by HRM was seen in 33 (56%) patients; a hiatal hernia was seen in 91% (30 of 33) of these on endoscopy and 81% (17 of 21) on barium swallow. Fifty-eight patients (54.7%) had an abnormal body motility.


HRM studies are shorter than those using conventional methods. Interpretation is image based, and correlation with objective endoscopic and physiologic findings confirms the accuracy of interpretation. The introduction of HRM is a significant advance in the outpatient evaluation of esophageal function.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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