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J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Jun 24;131(24):8398-400. doi: 10.1021/ja901831u.

Mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based double drug delivery system for glucose-responsive controlled release of insulin and cyclic AMP.

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Department of Chemistry, U.S. Department of Energy Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3111, USA.


A boronic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (BA-MSN) for glucose-responsive controlled release of both insulin and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was synthesized. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled, gluconic acid-modified insulin (FITC-G-Ins) proteins were immobilized on the exterior surface of BA-MSN and also served as caps to encapsulate cAMP molecules inside the mesopores of BA-MSN. The release of both G-Ins and cAMP was triggered by the introduction of saccharides. The selectivity of FITC-G-Ins release toward a series of carbohydrate triggers was determined to be fructose > glucose > other saccharides. The unique feature of this double-release system is that the decrease of FITC-G-Ins release with cycles can be balanced by the release of cAMP from mesopores of MSN, which is regulated by the gatekeeper effect of FITC-G-Ins. In vitro controlled release of cAMP was studied at two pH conditions (pH 7.4 and 8.5). Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of cAMP-loaded G-Ins-MSN with four different cell lines was investigated by cell viability and proliferation studies. The cellular uptake properties of cAMP-loaded FITC-BA-MSN with and without G-Ins capping were investigated by flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy. We envision that this glucose-responsive MSN-based double-release system could lead to a new generation of self-regulated insulin-releasing devices.

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