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Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010 Mar;198(3):203-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2009.02004.x. Epub 2009 May 15.

A decade of hypocretins: past, present and future of the neurobiology of arousal.

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1
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. llecea@stanford.edu

Abstract

In 1998, two groups independently identified the hypocretins, also known as orexins, as two hypothalamic peptides derived from the same precursor expressed in a few thousand neurones restricted to the perifornical area. A decade later, an amazing set of discoveries has demonstrated a key role for this neurotransmitter system in arousal and beyond. Here I review some of the experiments that led to these discoveries and the implications in the neurobiology of the hypothalamus and our understanding of brain arousal.

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