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Neoplasma. 2009;56(4):303-16.

Influence of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) coding sequence variants on the development of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity in patients with high-grade toxicity and patients with excellent tolerance of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

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Institute of Biochem,istry and Experimental Oncology, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine, U Nemocnice 5, 128 53 Prague 2, Czech Republic.


Alterations in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) coding for the key enzyme (DPD) of fluoropyrimidines (FPs) catabolism contribute to the development of serious FPs-related toxicity. We performed mutation analysis of DPYD based on cDNA sequencing in 76 predominantly colorectal cancer patients treated by FPs with early development of high (grade 3-4) hematological and/or gastrointestinal toxicity. Six previously described [85T>C (C29R), 496A>G (M166V), 775A>G (K259E), 1601G>A (S534N), 1627A>G (I543V), IVS14+1G>A, 2194G>A (V732I)] and two novel [187A>G (K63E) and 1050 G>A (R357H)] non-synonymous DPYD variants were found in 56/76 (73.7%) high-toxicity patients. Subsequently, these alterations were analyzed in 48 patients with excellent long-term tolerance of FPs and in 243 controls and were detected in 37/48 (77.1%) and 166/243 (68.3%) cases, respectively. Analysis of these alterations as risk factors for development of toxicity in pooled FPs-treated population demonstrated that C29R negatively correlated with overall gastrointestinal toxicity (OR = 0.48; 95%CI 0.23-1.0) and M166V in women protected against overall hematological toxicity and neutropenia (both OR = 0.26; 95%CI 0.07-0.89), whereas IVS14+1G>A (found in five high-toxicity patients only) increased risk of mucositis in overall population (OR = 7.0; 95%CI 1.1-44.53), and thrombocytopenia in women (OR = 10.8; 95%CI 1.24-93.98). Moreover, we identified a strong association of V732I with leucopenia (OR = 8.17; 95%CI 2.44 - 27.31) and neutropenia (OR=2.78; 95% CI 1.03-7.51). Our data enabled characterization of "high risk" haplotypes (carriers of IVS14+1G>A or V732 lacking M166V) representing small (22% female and 11% male patients), population in high risk of serious hematological toxicity development, and in patients with "lower risk" that unlikely develop serious hematological toxicity [carriers of M166V without IVS14+1G>A and V732I in females (32% women), and non-carriers of C29R, M166V, IVS14+1G>A, and V732I in males (46% men)]. Our results indicate that genotyping of several DPYD variants may lead to stratification of patients with respect to the risk of serious hematological toxicity development during FPs treatment.

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