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Opt Express. 2003 Nov 17;11(23):3093-9.

In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy.


Morphological changes and complex developmental processes inside vertebrate embryos are difficult to observe noninvasively with millimeter-penetration and sub-micrometer-resolution at the same time. By using higher harmonic generation, including second and third harmonics, as the microscopic contrast mechanism, optical noninvasiveness can be achieved due to the virtual-level-transition characteristic. The intrinsic nonlinearity of harmonic generations provides optical sectioning capability while the selected 1230-nm near-infrared light source provides the deeppenetration ability. The complicated development within a ~1.5-mm thick zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo from initial cell proliferation, gastrulation, to tissue formation can all be observed clearly in vivo without any treatment on the live specimen.

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