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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Aug;53(8):3248-55. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00079-09. Epub 2009 May 26.

Outer membrane protein STM3031 (Ail/OmpX-like protein) plays a key role in the ceftriaxone resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

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Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Peitou, Taipei, Taiwan.


Previously, the putative outer membrane protein STM3031 has been correlated with ceftriaxone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In this study, this protein was almost undetectable in the ceftriaxone-susceptible strain 01-4, but its levels were increased in 01-4 isogenic strains for which MICs were higher. The stm3031 gene deletion mutant, R200(Deltastm3031), was generated and showed >64-fold lower ceftriaxone resistance than R200, supporting a key role for STM3031 in ceftriaxone resistance. To investigate which outer membrane protein(s) was associated with resistance, the outer membrane protein profiles of 01-4, R200, and R200(Deltastm3031) were compared proteomically. Nine proteins were identified as altered. The expression levels of AcrA, TolC, STM3031, STM1530, VacJ, and Psd in R200 were increased; those of OmpC, OmpD, and OmpW were decreased. The expression levels of OmpD, OmpW, STM1530, VacJ, and Psd, but not those of OmpC, AcrA, and TolC, in R200(Deltastm3031) were returned to the levels in strain 01-4. Furthermore, the genes' mRNA levels correlated with their protein levels when the three strains were compared. The detection of higher AcrB levels, linked to higher acrB, acrD, and acrF mRNA levels, in strain R200 than in strains 01-4 and R200(Deltastm3031) suggests that AcrB, AcrD, and AcrF participate in ceftriaxone resistance. Taken together with the location of STM3031 in the outer membrane, these results suggest that STM3031 plays a key role in ceftriaxone resistance, probably by reducing permeability via a decreased porin OmpD level and enhancing export via increased AcrD efflux pump activity.

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