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Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2009 May;11(3):262-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2008.00165.x. Epub 2008 Dec 15.

Urea derivatives on the move: cytokinin-like activity and adventitious rooting enhancement depend on chemical structure.

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  • 1Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, Universit√† di Parma, Parma, Italy.


Urea derivatives are synthetic compounds, some of which have proved to be positive regulators of cell division and differentiation. N-phenyl-N'-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)urea (forchlorofenuron, CPPU) and N-phenyl-N'-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (thidiazuron, TDZ), well known urea cytokinin representatives, are extensively used in in vitro plant morphogenesis studies, as they show cytokinin-like activity often exceeding that of adenine compounds. In recent years, renewed interest in structure-activity relationship studies allowed identification of new urea cytokinins and other urea derivatives that specifically enhance adventitious root formation. In this review, we report the research history of urea derivatives, new insights into their biological activity, and recent progress on their mode of action.

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