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Opt Express. 2003 Apr 21;11(8):933-8.

Real-time second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on a 2-GHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser.


The problem of weak harmonic generation signal intensity limited by photodamage probability in optical microscopy and spectroscopy could be resolved by increasing the repetition rate of the excitation light source. Here we demonstrate the first photomultiplier-based real-time second-harmonic-generation microscopy taking advantage of the strongly enhanced nonlinear signal from a high-repetition-rate Ti:sapphire laser. We also demonstrate that the photodamage possibility in common biological tissues can be efficiently reduced with this high repetition rate laser at a much higher average power level compared to the commonly used ~80- MHz repetition rate lasers.


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