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Transplant Proc. 2009 May;41(4):1216-7. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.03.093.

Posttransplant proteinuria associated with everolimus.

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Renal Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Firenze, Italy.


Anti-mTOR may induce proteinuria when utilized after renal transplantation. Little is known about the pathogenesis and composition of proteinuria. To clarify this unresolved aspect, we analyzed urinary protein composition utilizing an integrated proteomics approach, including quantitative assays, 2-dimensional electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF, and Western blots among 48 renal transplant recipients treated with everolimus (EVL; n = 31) or enteric-coated mycophenolic acid (EC-MPA; n = 17). High (>3 g/d) or intermediate levels of proteinuria (1-3 g) developed in 12 EVL patients (39%) compared with 4 subjects (23%) in the EC-MPA group. Proteinuria, which started during the first 2 days after EVL, tended to reduce during the follow-up. Quantitative proteomics showed an increase in low molecular proteins beta2 microglobulin (P < .001) and alpha1 microglobulin (P < .025). Qualitative proteomics showed a marked increase among all urinary components in EVL and EC-MPA patients. Major changes involved typical components of glomerular damage: albumin, Zn-alpha1 glycoprotein, alpha2HS glycoprotein, and leucine-rich alpha2 glycoprotein. In addition, we observed specific biomarkers for EVL: clusters of alpha1-antitrypsin fragments and monoclonal lambda chains. In conclusion, EVL induced proteinuria of a mixed glomerular and tubular origin that correlated with the start of treatment and reached nephrotic ranges in few cases. The specific urinary markers may reflect renal alterations related to the transplant or specific alterations associated with the drug.

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