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Psychol Med. 2010 Feb;40(2):315-24. doi: 10.1017/S0033291709005996. Epub 2009 May 22.

Psychiatric morbidity associated with same-sex sexual behaviour: influence of minority stress and familial factors.

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Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.



Increased psychiatric morbidity has been widely reported among non-heterosexual individuals (defined as reporting a homosexual/bisexual identity and/or same-sex sexual partners). However, the causes of this psychiatric ill-health are mostly unknown.


We attempted to estimate the influence of minority stress and familial factors on psychiatric disorder among adults with same-sex sexual partners. Self-report data from a 2005 survey of adults (age 20-47 years, n=17,379) in the population-based Swedish Twin Registry were analysed with regression modelling and co-twin control methodology.


Rates of depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), eating disorders, alcohol dependence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were increased among men and women with same-sex sexual experiences. Adjusting for perceived discrimination and hate crime victimization lowered this risk whereas controlling for familial (genetic or environmental) factors in within-twin pair comparisons further reduced or eliminated it.


Components of minority stress influence the risk of psychiatric ill-health among individuals with any same-sex sexual partner. However, substantial confounding by familial factors suggests a common genetic and/or environmental liability for same-sex sexual behaviour and psychiatric morbidity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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