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J Med Food. 2009 Apr;12(2):435-41. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0164.

Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil obtained from roots and chemical composition of the volatile constituents from the roots, stems, and leaves of Ballota nigra from Serbia.

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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia.


The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the roots, stems, and leaves of Ballota nigra, growing in Serbia, was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. Kovats indices, mass spectra, and standard compounds were used to identify a total of 115 individual compounds. The plant produces two types of essential oils. Oils derived from stems and leaves were sesquiterpene rich (78.17% and 88.40%, respectively), containing principally beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and alpha-humulene, present in appreciable amounts. In contrast, oil derived from the root was dominated by p-vinylguiacol (9.24%), borneol (7.51%), myrtenol (7.13%), trans-pinocarveol (5.22%), pinocarvone (4.37%), 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal (4.32%), and p-cymen-8-ol (4.30%). Essential oil obtained from the roots was evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial species and one fungi.

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