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J Med Food. 2009 Apr;12(2):327-33. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2007.0694.

Emblica officinalis protects against alcohol-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

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Department of Biochemistry, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, India.


The protective effect of Emblica officinalis, a commonly used botanical in many Ayurvedic preparations, was investigated for its effects on liver mitochondria of ethanol-administered rats. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity are considered two of the key underlying mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced liver injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Alcohol-administered rats showed a significant elevation of plasma transaminases (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase compared to control rats. However, activities of hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione, were significantly lower. Chronic alcohol feeding also increased lipid peroxide levels, protein carbonyl content, and overproduction of nitric oxide followed by lowered activities of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and content of cytochromes. Administration of E. officinalis fruit extract (EFE) at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day to alcoholic rats offers protection by simultaneously lowering the carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities, SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase activities, and content of cytochromes in hepatic mitochondria. Our data indicate that EFE administration to chronically alcohol-fed rats offers protection against alcohol-induced alterations. The active tannoid principles and nitric oxide scavenging compounds present in EFE may have contributed to the protection observed.

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