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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 2;106(22):9093-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903001106. Epub 2009 May 19.

Calneurons provide a calcium threshold for trans-Golgi network to plasma membrane trafficking.

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Project Group Neuroplasticity, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany.


Phosphatidylinositol 4-OH kinase IIIbeta (PI-4Kbeta) is involved in the regulated local synthesis of phospholipids that are crucial for trans-Golgi network (TGN)-to-plasma membrane trafficking. In this study, we show that the calcium sensor proteins calneuron-1 and calneuron-2 physically associate with PI-4Kbeta, inhibit the enzyme profoundly at resting and low calcium levels, and negatively interfere with Golgi-to-plasma membrane trafficking. At high calcium levels this inhibition is released and PI-4Kbeta is activated via a preferential association with neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1). In accord to its supposed function as a filter for subthreshold Golgi calcium transients, neuronal overexpression of calneuron-1 enlarges the size of the TGN caused by a build-up of vesicle proteins and reduces the number of axonal Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles, large dense core vesicles that carry a set of essential proteins for the formation of the presynaptic active zone during development. A corresponding protein knockdown has the opposite effect. The opposing roles of calneurons and NCS-1 provide a molecular switch to decode local calcium transients at the Golgi and impose a calcium threshold for PI-4Kbeta activity and vesicle trafficking.

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