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Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Aug;47(8):1950-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.05.015. Epub 2009 May 18.

Improved method to measure aldehyde adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandialdehyde as model compounds.

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Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.


Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are used to measure reactive compounds/metabolites in vivo. Schiff base adducts from aldehydes to N-termini in Hb have been measured by GC-MS/MS after stabilisation through reduction, and detachment by a modified Edman procedure. This paper describes a further development using 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and its probable metabolite, 2,5-furandialdehyde (FDA), as model compounds. Reference compounds were synthesized and characterized. The conditions for the reduction of the Schiff bases were optimized using NaBH(3)CN as a mild reducing agent, and steps used in the earlier method could be deleted. The adduct from FDA could not be specifically analysed, as selective reduction of the imine could not be achieved. In a few samples of human blood, background levels of 10-35 pmol/g globin of the HMF adduct were observed. Half-lifes of the reversible Schiff base adduct from HMF were determined to 3.4h at 37 degrees C and 10.9h at 25 degrees C. The developed method showed good sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of the Schiff base from HMF, with improvements regarding simplicity of work-up procedures due to mild conditions. The developed method could be explored for application to adducts from other aldehydes bound as Schiff bases to N-termini in Hb.

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