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J Psychol. 2009 May;143(3):318-36. doi: 10.3200/JRLP.143.3.318-336.

A two-factor model of defensive pessimism and its relations with achievement motives.

Author information

1
Nanyang Technological University. pcmlhxl@nus.edu.sg

Abstract

The author first examined the underlying factor structure of the defensive pessimism construct and its relations with achievement motives. The author used a sample of 542 Singaporean undergraduate students and found that defensive pessimism is a 2-factor construct that comprises (a) negative expectation, in which individuals worry about possible pitfalls, and (b) reflectivity, in which individuals put forth efforts to prevent possible pitfalls. Then, the author used a sample of 160 Singaporean undergraduate students for Study 2, which supported the proposed model in which mastery predicted the reflectivity factor of defensive pessimism, competition predicted the negative-expectation factor of defensive pessimism indirectly through the mediation of fear of shame, and negative-expectation factor predicted the reflectivity factor of defensive pessimism because, for the defensive pessimists, the act of worrying helps them to respond to their anxiety by initiating the planning process to direct efforts to prevent potential disasters.

PMID:
19455858
DOI:
10.3200/JRLP.143.3.318-336
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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