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J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2009 Apr;31(2):211-45.

Predicting race performance in triathlon: the role of perfectionism, achievement goals, and personal goal setting.

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Department of Psychology, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK.

Erratum in

  • J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2009 Aug;31(4):575.


The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes' goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes' performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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