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Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2009 Apr;52(2):62-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1104610. Epub 2009 May 18.

Image-guided keyhole evacuation of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Si┼čli, Istanbul, Turkey.



Treatment of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome and invasiveness of one surgical approach that provides complete evacuation of SICH, the image-guided keyhole evacuation.


The technique was employed in 20 consecutive patients, nine of whom harbored deep hematomas. The hematoma was evacuated through a keyhole minicraniotomy, 2.5 cm in diameter. Computerised tomographic (CT) scan was performed at the end of the procedure to confirm completeness of evacuation. Invasiveness was assessed by comparing initial neurological status determined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores with the third and seventh postoperative day scores, and by radiological findings. Outcome at six months was assessed by the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, and by comparing the initial and 6 month modified Rankin Scale scores.


Mean age was 63.7+/-14.8 years, mean volume was 41.6+/-17.5 mL, and mean time to surgery was 17.6+/-13.2 h. CT scans at the end of the procedure showed complete evacuation (mean 97.5%), and 60% decrease of both mean midline shift and mean edema volume (p=0.005). Neurological assessment at the end of the first postoperative week showed significant improvement (p<0.0001). At six months, 90% of the patients had achieved recovery to independence, and one patient had died.


The image-guided keyhole approach allowed prompt evacuation of SICH and resulted in a high rate of functional recovery and low mortality. This is a minimally invasive technique that is highly effective in immediate and complete hematoma evacuation.

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