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J Urol. 2009 Jul;182(1):268-71. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.02.137. Epub 2009 May 17.

Is age at toilet training associated with the presence of vesicoureteral reflux or the occurrence of urinary tract infection?

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Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8036, USA.



We sought to determine whether age at toilet training is influenced by a history of vesicoureteral reflux or urinary tract infection.


We reviewed records on 1,184 patients treated at a pediatric urology practice. All patients had information available regarding age at toilet training, renal sonography and voiding cystourethrography, and presence or absence of urinary tract infection. We evaluated possible associations between vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection, and age at toilet training.


Of 1,184 patients 280 had unilateral reflux, 339 had bilateral reflux and 565 had normal anatomy. Also, 926 patients had urinary tract infections. Girls tended to be toilet trained 3 months earlier than boys (p <0.001) in all subgroups (normal anatomy, unilateral reflux, bilateral reflux). Children with and without urinary tract infections were toilet trained at similar ages. However, timing of the first urinary tract infection seemed to be associated with age at toilet training. For girls a urinary tract infection occurring earlier tended to delay toilet training, while earlier toilet training seemed to be associated with a later urinary tract infection (p <0.001). The patterns were similar for boys but were not statistically significant.


Age at toilet training seems to be independent of the presence of vesicoureteral reflux. Urinary tract infection itself is not necessarily associated with age at toilet training. However, timing of the first urinary tract infection seems to be related to age at toilet training.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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