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Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010 Mar;49(3):249-57. doi: 10.1177/0009922809336358. Epub 2009 May 15.

Antibiotic use in premature infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.

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  • 1Center for Outcomes Research, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Using a retrospective cohort of premature infants, we constructed multivariable Poisson models to determine factors associated with the receipt of antibiotics during the first year after discharge, N = 891. Black race (incidence rate ratio 1.80 compared with White infants, P = .008), male gender (incidence rate ratio 1.44; P = .007), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (incidence rate ratio 1.47; P = .04), and each additional child at home (incidence rate ratio 1.21, P = .002) increased the receipt of antibiotics for any reason. Male gender and additional children at home increased the receipt of non-recommended antibiotics, while Black infants received care at facilities that prescribed more non-recommended antibiotics. Even in a high-risk population of children, factors other than the medical history and presentation of the child may alter antibiotic prescription patterns and result in variations in care.

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