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J Urol. 2009 Jul;182(1):155-60. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.02.122. Epub 2009 May 17.

Clinical phenotyping of women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: a key to classification and potentially improved management.

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1
Department of Urology, Queen's University at Kingston, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We have proposed a clinical phenotype system (UPOINT) to classify patients with urological pelvic pain to improve the understanding of etiology and guide therapy. We examined the relationship between UPOINT and symptoms in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome were classified in each domain of UPOINT, that is urinary, psychosocial, organ specific, infection, neurological/systemic and tenderness. Symptoms were assessed using the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index, Pain/Urgency/Frequency score and visual analogue scale for pain/urgency/frequency. Clinically relevant associations were calculated.

RESULTS:

The mean age of 100 consecutive patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome was 48 years, median symptom duration was 7 years and median Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index score was 12.8. The percent positive for each domain was urinary 100%, psychosocial 34%, organ specific 96%, infection 38%, neurological/systemic 45% and tenderness 48%. All patients were included in at least 2 domains, with 2 domains for 13%, 3 domains--35%, 4 domains--34%, 5 domains--13% and 6 domains--5%. The number of domains was associated with greater symptom duration (p = 0.014) but not age. The number of domains was also associated with poorer general interstitial cystitis and pain symptoms (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index p = 0.012, pain p = 0.036) but not with frequency or urgency. The psychosocial domain was associated with increased pain, urgency and frequency, while tenderness was associated with increased Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index score, pain/urgency/frequency score and urgency. The neurological/systemic domain was associated with increased Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index score while the infection domain was not associated with any increased symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS:

The UPOINT phenotyping system can classify patients with interstitial cystitis according to clinically relevant domains. Increased symptom duration leads to a greater number of domains, and domains that function outside of the bladder (psychosocial, neurological, tenderness) predict a significant impact on symptoms. We hypothesize that the UPOINT system can direct multimodal therapy and improve outcomes.

PMID:
19447429
DOI:
10.1016/j.juro.2009.02.122
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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