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J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Jun 10;131(22):7626-32. doi: 10.1021/ja809380e.

Rapid in situ generation of two patterned chemoselective surface chemistries from a single hydroxy-terminated surface using controlled microfluidic oxidation.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry and Carolina Center for Genome Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, USA.


In this work, we develop a new, rapid and inexpensive method to generate spatially controlled aldehyde and carboxylic acid surface groups by microfluidic oxidation of 11-hydroxyundecylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. SAMs are activated and patterned using a reversibly sealable, elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane cassette, fabricated with preformed micropatterns by soft lithography. By flowing the mild oxidant pyridinium chlorochromate through the microchannels, only selected areas of the SAM are chemically altered. This microfluidic oxidation strategy allows for ligand immobilization by two chemistries originating from a single SAM composition. ITO is robust, conductive, and transparent, making it an ideal platform for studying interfacial interactions. We display spatial control over the immobilization of a variety of ligands on ITO and characterize the resulting oxime and amide linkages by electrochemistry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. This general method may be used with many other materials to rapidly generate patterned and tailored surfaces for studies ranging from molecular electronics to biospecific cell-based assays and biomolecular microarrays.

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