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Public Health Rep. 2009 May-Jun;124(3):409-18.

ATV and bicycle deaths and associated costs in the United States, 2000-2005.

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Injury Control Research Center and Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University, PO Box 9151, Morgantown, WV 26506-9151, USA.



We determined the rate and costs of recent U.S. all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and bicycle deaths.


Fatalities were identified from the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause-of-Death public-access file. ATV and bicycle deaths were defined by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes V86.0-V86.9 and V10-V19, respectively. Lifetime costs were estimated using standard methods such as those used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.


From 2000 through 2005, 5,204 people died from ATV crashes and 4,924 from bicycle mishaps. A mean of 694 adults and 174 children died annually from ATV injuries, while 666 adults and 155 children died from bicycle injuries. Death rates increased among adult ATV and bike riders and child ATV riders. Males had higher fatality rates for both ATVs and bicycles. Among children, total costs increased 15% for ATV deaths and decreased 23% for bicycle deaths. In adults, ATV costs increased 45% and bike costs increased 39%.


Bicycle- and ATV-related deaths and associated costs are high and, for the most part, increasing. Promotion of proven prevention strategies, including helmet use, is indicated. However, enforcement of helmet laws is problematic, which may contribute to observed trends.

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