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J Lipid Res. 2009 Oct;50(10):2055-63. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M800655-JLR200. Epub 2009 May 14.

Infection decreases fatty acid oxidation and nuclear hormone receptors in the diaphragm.

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Metabolism Section, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.


Respiratory failure is a major cause of mortality during septic shock and is due in part to decreased ventilatory muscle contraction. Ventilatory muscles have high energy demands; fatty acid (FA) oxidation is an important source of ATP. FA oxidation is regulated by nuclear hormone receptors; studies have shown that the expression of these receptors is decreased in liver, heart, and kidney during sepsis. Here, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreases FA oxidation and the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), FA transport protein 1 (FATP-1), CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase beta, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), and acyl-CoA synthetase, key proteins required for FA uptake and oxidation, in the diaphragm. LPS also decreased mRNA levels of PPARalpha and beta/delta, RXRalpha, beta, and gamma, thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta, and estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) and their coactivators PGC-1alpha, PGC-1beta, SRC1, SRC2, Lipin 1, and CBP. Zymosan resulted in similar changes in the diaphragm. Finally, in PPARalpha deficient mice, baseline CPT-1beta and FATP-1 levels were markedly decreased and were not further reduced by LPS suggesting that a decrease in the PPARalpha signaling pathway plays an important role in inducing some of these changes. The decrease in FA oxidation in the diaphragm may be detrimental, leading to decreased diaphragm contraction and an increased risk of respiratory failure during sepsis.

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