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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Oct 1;104 Suppl 1:S100-5. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.03.013. Epub 2009 May 12.

Educational disadvantage and cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA.


This study examined the influence of education on smoking status in a cohort (n=316) of pregnant women who were smokers at the time they learned of the current pregnancy. Subjects were participants in clinical trials examining the efficacy of monetary-based incentives for smoking-cessation and relapse prevention. In multivariate analyses, educational achievement was a robust predictor of smoking status upon entering prenatal care, of achieving abstinence antepartum among those still smoking at entry into prenatal care, and of smoking status at 6-month postpartum in the entire cohort and the subsample who received smoking-cessation treatment. In addition to educational attainment, other predictors of smoking status included smoking-related characteristics (e.g., number of cigarettes/day smoked pre-pregnancy), treatment, maternal age, and stress ratings. We suggest that strategies to increase educational attainment be included with more conventional tobacco-control policies in efforts to reduce smoking among girls and young women.

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