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J Chromatogr A. 2009 Oct 30;1216(44):7570-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.058. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

On-line stacking and sweeping capillary electrophoresis for detecting heroin metabolites in human urine.

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Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.


Heroin metabolites including morphine, codeine, and 6-acetylmorphine were determined by cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweep-MEKC). Liquid-liquid extraction was used for urine pretreatment. An uncoated fused silica capillary (Ld=30 cm, 50 microm ID) was filled with phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.5) containing 30% methanol, then high conductivity buffer (100 mM phosphate, 41.3 kPa for 18 s) was followed. Samples were injected electrokinetically (20 kV, 300 s). The sweeping and separation were performed at -25 kV using phosphate buffer (20 mM, pH 2.5) and 80 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The baseline separation was done within 10 min. During method validation, the calibration curves were linear over a range of 50-500 ng/mL (r > or = 0.994). The RSD and RE values in intra-day and inter-day assays were all below 20%, which showed good precision and accuracy. Their detection limits were 10 ng/mL (S/N=3). The optimized method was applied to determine real urine samples from addicts. These samples were confirmed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

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