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Nat Rev Genet. 2009 Jun;10(6):371-80. doi: 10.1038/nrg2578.

Towards better mouse models: enhanced genotypes, systemic phenotyping and envirotype modelling.

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Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum M├╝nchen, GmbH, Ingolst├Ądter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.


The mouse is the leading mammalian model organism for basic genetic research and for studying human diseases. Coordinated international projects are currently in progress to generate a comprehensive map of mouse gene functions - the first for any mammalian genome. There are still many challenges ahead to maximize the value of the mouse as a model, particularly for human disease. These involve generating mice that are better models of human diseases at the genotypic level, systemic (assessing all organ systems) and systematic (analysing all mouse lines) phenotyping of existing and new mouse mutant resources, and assessing the effects of the environment on phenotypes.

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